I color-coded my chests and put them in rows inside of a shed, but I know people who like to put them outside. You could also add signs behind the chests with an item to remind you of what's inside. For example, a sign with a sardine to show that your fish are in this specific chest.
I make little areas that things all go. Chests are colour coded to be close to what they resemble. Anything to do with smelting goes in a chest near furness', seeds and what not go close to the farming area. I only keep what I need, everything else gets sold!
I color code em according to how they're already color coded by type in game. Ie, fruit goes in a pink chest, vegetables in light green, minerals in dark red, etc. I keep em in a shed, with the exception of a crafting chest next to a workbench in front of the house.